Salaried and Professional Women
General Occupation Information
Farrell, Warren. Why Men Earn More: The startling truth behind the pay gap—and what women can do about it. New York: American Management Association, 2005.
Farrell asserts that the wage gap is due not to discrimination, but the professional choices women make.
Figart, Deborah. “Equal Pay for Equal Work: The role of job evaluation in an evolving social norm,” Journal of Economic Issues 34 (March 2000): 1-9.
Fuller, Sylvia. “Job mobility and wage trajectories for men and women in the United States,” American Sociological Review 73, no. 1 (February 2008): 158-183.
King, Mary C., ed. Squaring Up: Policy strategies to raise women’s incomes in the United States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001.
Kopelov, Connie. “History of the Struggle for Fair Pay.” National Committee on Pay Equity. www.pay-equity.org/info-history.html (accessed January 18, 2013).
Describes the major events in pay equity history.
Mortensen, Dale. Wage Dispersion: Why are similar workers paid differently? Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003.
Murphy, Evelyn F. Getting Even: Why women don’t get paid like men-and what to do about it. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005.
Includes summaries of a number of litigated cases involving various aspects of sex discrimination, including wages, and practical guidance for how to address pay discrimination based on gender.
Simkin, Joyce P. American Salaries and Wages Survey: Statistical Data Derived from more than 580 Government, Business & News Sources. Detroit: Thomson/Gale, 2007.
Compilation of many occupations and corresponding salaries obtained from government and trade association data.
Stone, Pamela and Arielle Kuperberg. “Anti-Discrimination vs. Anti-Poverty? A comparison of pay equity and living wage reforms,” Journal of Women, Politics & Policy 27, no. 5 (2005): 23-39.
Toutkoushian, Robert K., ed. Conducting Salary-Equity Studies: Alternative approaches to research. New Directions for Institutional Research 115. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.
The volume explores some of the insights and advances made by economists and other researchers on the topic of salary equity. Chapters focus on important methodological issues that analysts should take into account when conducting a salary-equity study.
Binder, Melissa, Krause, Kate, Chermak, Janie, Thacher, Jennifer and Julia Gilroy. “Same Work, Different Pay? Evidence from a U. S. public university.” Feminist Economics 16, no. 4 (October 2010): 105-135.
Boraas, Stephanie and William M. Rodgers, III. “How Does Gender Play a Role in the Earnings Gap? An Update.” Monthly Labor Review 126, no. 3 (March 2003): 9-15. www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2003/03/art2full.pdf (January 19, 2013).
Brown, Laura K., Troutt, Elizabeth and Susan Prentice. “Ten Years After: Sex and salaries at a Canadian university.” Canadian Public Policy 37, no. 2 (June 2011): 239-255.
Business and Professional Women’s Foundation. 101 Facts on the Status of Working Women. Washington, D.C.: BPW Foundation, 2007. http://www.bpwfoundation.org/documents/uploads/101FactsOct07.pdf (accessed January 19, 2013).
Campbell, Doug. “The Pay Divide: Men make more money than women. Some new economic research helps explain why.” Region Focus (Spring 2006): 32-35. http://www.richmondfed.org/publications/research/region_focus/2006/spring/pdf/feature5.pdf (accessed January 19, 2013).
Cho, Donghun and Joonmo Cho. “How Do Labor Unions Influence the Gender Earnings Gap? A comparative study of the U. S. and Korea.” Feminist Economics 17, no. 3 (July 2011): 133-157.
Corbett, Christianne and Catherine Hill. The Earnings of Women and Men One Year after College Graduation. Washington, D.C.: AAUW, 2012. http://www.aauw.org/files/2013/02/graduating-to-a-pay-gap-the-earnings-of-women-and-men-one-year-after-college-graduation.pdf
Coutts, Justin. “Will Pay Equity Close the ‘Pay Gap’ Between Men and Women?” New Zealand Business Roundtable no. 1 (February 2004): 1-7.
Analyzes the underlying issues around pay equity, looks at the effectiveness of interventions to address the pay gap, and discusses policy approaches to improve earnings of women and what the future is likely to hold.
Curtis, John W. “2004-05 Report on the Economic Status of the Profession.” American Association of University Professors. www.aaup.org/AAUP/comm/rep/Z/ecstatreport2004-05/ (accessed January 19, 2013).
Includes salaries and trends for university professors, highlighting gender equity issues.
Department for Professional Employees, AFL-CIO, Research Department. “Professional Women: A Gendered Look at Occupational Obstacles and Opportunities Fact Sheet 2013.” http://dpeaflcio.org/programs-publications/issue-fact-sheets/professional-women-a-gendered-look-at-occupational-obstacles-and-opportunities/ (accessed January 19, 2013).
Hartmann, Heidi, Olga Sorokina, and Erica Williams. “The Best and Worst State Economies for Women.” Institute for Women’s Policy Research Briefing Paper no. R334 (December 2006). http://www.iwpr.org/publications/pubs/the-best-and-worst-state-economies-for-women-1 (accessed January 19, 2013).
Hegewisch, Ariane and Angela Edwards. “The Gender Wage Gap: 2011” Institute for Women’s Policy Research Fact Sheet no. C350 (September 2012). http://www.iwpr.org/publications/pubs/the-gender-wage-gap-2011-1/at_download/file (accessed January 19, 2013).
Hill, Catherine and Elena Silva. Public Perceptions of the Pay Gap. Washington, D.C.: AAUW Educational Foundation, 2005. http://www.aauw.org/files/2013/02/public-perceptions-of-the-pay-gap-briefing-paper.pdf (accessed January 19, 2013).
Sponsored by the AAUW Educational Foundation, the report reexamines Americans’ perception of the pay gap based on an AAUW-commissioned poll conducted in 2005 and compares the perceptions to recent studies on the pay gap.
Judge, Timothy and Beth A. Livingston. “Is the Gap More Than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings.” Journal of Applied Psychology 93, no. 5 (2008): 994-1012.
Koeske, G. and W. Krowinski. “Gender-Based Salary Inequity in Social Work: Mediators of Gender’s Effect on Salary.” Social Work 49, no. 2 (April 2004): 309-317.
Finds that career-trajectory differences aren’t enough to explain pay inequities for women, who moreover are overrepresented in the field.
Laine, C. and B. J. Turner. “Unequal Pay for Equal Work: The gender gap in academic medicine.” Annals of Internal Medicine 141, no. 3 (2004): 238-40.
Discusses results of statistical report listed below, which provides recent evidence of salary disparities between men and women in the medical field.
Levine, Linda. “The Gender Wage Gap and Pay Equity: Is Comparable Worth the Next Step?” Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, No. 98-278E, updated December 20, 2004.
Lengthy overview of issues on both sides of debate; includes summary of Congressional legislative activities.
Magnusson, Charlotta. “Why Is There a Gender Wage Gap According to Occupational Prestige?” Acta Sociologica 53, no. 2 (June 2010): 99-117.
Miki, Malul and Fany Yuval. “Using Education to Reduce the Wage Gap Between Men and Women.” Journal of Socio-Economics 40, no. 4 (August 2011): 412-416.
Mitra, Aparna. “Access to Supervisory Jobs and the Gender Wage Gap among Professionals.” Journal of Economic Issues 37, no. 4 (December 2003): 1023-1044.
Gender segregation and allocation of differential supervisory positions contributes to lower earnings of female supervisors and unequal pay between males and females.
National Women’s Law Center. Congress Must Act to Close the Wage Gap for Women. Washington, D.C.: National Women’s Law Center, 2008. www.pay-equity.org/PDFs/PayEquityFactSheet_May2008.pdf (accessed January 19, 2013).
Palomino, Frederic and Eloic-Anil Peyrache. “Psychological Bias and Gender Wage Gap.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 76, no. 3 (December 2010): 563-573.
Rose, S. and H. Hartmann. Still a Man’s Labor Market: The Long-Term Earnings Gap. Washington, D.C.: Institute for Women’s Policy Research, 2004. http://www.iwpr.org/publications/pubs/still-a-mans-labor-market-the-long-term-earnings-gap (accessed January 19, 2013).
A look at the wage gap over time, using longitudinal data.
Stoilova, Rumiana, Simeonova-Ganeva, Ralitsa and Tatyana Kotzeva. “Determinants of Gender Disparities in Labor Income.” International Journal of Sociology 42, no. 3 (Fall 2012): 53-76.
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Highlights of Women’s Earnings in 2011. Report 1038. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Department of Labor, 2008.
Includes data on median earnings by selected characteristics, including occupations. Earlier years also available at the Bureau of Labor Statistics website.
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Women in the Labor Force: A Databook. Report 996 Washington, D.C.: U. S. Department of Labor, 2011. http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlf-databook2011.htm (accessed January 19, 2013).
Provides a wealth of statistics on women’s earnings and labor force participation patterns. Earlier years also available at the Bureau of Labor Statistics website.
U. S. General Accounting Office. Women’s Earnings: Work Patterns Partially Explain Difference Between Men’s and Women’s Earnings. Washington, D.C.: U. S. General Accounting Office, 2003. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-04-35 (accessed January 19, 2013).
U. S. Government Accountability Office. Progress Made, but Women Remain Overrepresented among Low-Wage Workers. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Accountability Office, 2011. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-10 (accessed January 19, 2013).
West, Martha S. and John W. Curtis. AAUP Faculty Gender Equity Indicators 2006. Washington, D.C.: American Association of University Professors, 2006.
The report provides data on four equity measures: employment status, tenure, promotion, and average salaries for faculty at over 1,400 colleges and universities across the country.
Medical & Life Sciences
“Health Care Salary Surveys.” Pam Pohly’s Net Guide.
The website provides a wealth of information regarding salary and compensation in the healthcare and medical fields.
“Nursing 2011 Salary Survey.” Nursing 41, no. 10 (October 2011): 37-41.
Earlier editions are also available.
American Bar Association. “Salary Survey Report for Bar Association.” www.payscale.com/research/US/Bar_Association=American_Bar_Association/Salary (accessed January 15, 2013).
National Association for Legal Career Professionals. Associate Salary Survey, 2011. Washington, D.C.: NACLP, 2011. www.nalp.org/2011_associate_salaries (accessed January 15, 2013).
Survey details private practice compensation ranges.
American Federation of Teachers. Public Employees Compensation Survey 2012. Washington, D.C.: AFT Public Employees, March 2012. http://www.aft.org/pdfs/pubemps/pecompsurvey0912.pdf (accessed January 15, 2013).
Compilation of data to compare the salaries of state employee professionals in representative job titles across the country. Includes data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia.
American Federation of Teachers. 2007 Survey & Analysis of Teacher Salary Trends. Washington, D.C.: American Federation of Teachers, 2007. http://www.aft.org/pdfs/teachers/salarysurvey07.pdf (accessed January 15, 2013).
The report focuses on trends in teacher compensation. Contains data on teacher pay state by state and the underlying issues in public finance that need to be considered when examining teacher pay.
Haignere, Lois. Paychecks: A guide to conducting salary-equity studies for higher education faculty. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: American Association of University Professors, 2002.
A joint effort of salary-equity researcher Lois Haignere, the AAUP, and the United University Professions, the book is a resource for investigating bias in faculty salaries. It also describes ways to detect gender and race bias among faculty in the same rank, select a salary-equity consultant, remedy bias when it is found, and accomplish other tasks related to ensuring equity in faculty salaries.
Svarstad, B., J. Draugalis, S. Meyer, and J. K. Mount. “The Status of Women in Pharmacy Education: Persisting gaps and issues.” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 68, no. 3, article 79 (2004).
Salary and advancement gaps for women educators at schools of pharmaceutical science.
“Median Weekly Earnings of Full Time Wage and Salary Workers by Union Affiliation, Occupation, and Industry.” Table 43, 2012 figures (DOL/BLS) http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat43.pdf
Hirsch, Barry T. and David A. Macpherson. “Union Membership and Earnings Data Book: Compilations from the Current Population Survey (2012 Edition).” Washington, D.C.: Bureau of National Affairs, 2012.
Variety of tables showing U.S. workers’ status. Includes several tables by industry and occupation.
Adapted from the “Pay Equity Bibliography” by the ALA-APA Standing Committee on the Salaries and Status of Library Workers, February 2013 Edition.